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Shadow English Podcast Transcripts 

Welcome to the transcripts page of Shadow English Podcast. Here you can access all (coming soon) of the transcripts of the past episodes. Enjoy, and happy studying! :-)

Hooliganism (Ep 36)


Hello everyone! We are back with another request from listeners! Yay! Keep them coming. Please let me know what topic you’d like me to cover if you have something you would like to shadow. 


So the requested topic is about hooliganism.  What is hooliganism anyway?  Maybe some of you have heard of this word. And actually, I was a bit reluctant to go with this topic…because, well, I am American. Hooliganism, for those who don’t know, is more of a term that is used in the UK…from what I know. It refers to the rowdy and disruptive behavior that some spectators display when they are at a sporting event. People who engage in such behavior are called Hooligans. Specifically, they may engage in such behavior as rioting, fighting, bullying other spectators, vandalism….which is like destroying public property, or defacing public property..for example writing with spray paint on the walls, or throwing food at a poster or statue… or making fun of a person by drawing on their poster with a marker..stuff like that.  Yeah…so….this kind of behavior typically is displayed more often than not at a soccer event…or football, as the Europeans say…which I admit is a more suitable name for the sport.


And yeah…Europeans engage in such behavior more often than Americans do, I’d say. That is why I said before that I was reluctant to talk about this…because I don’t have as much experience or knowledge as perhaps Europeans do. Plus, I am not really a big soccer fan.  So, one reason why hooliganism doesn’t happen as much in American is because  soccer is less popular in the States. We just don’t care about soccer the same way Europeans do. I guess that is because we have many other popular sports, like American football, Baseball, Basketball, and so on…that are already very popular. Maybe there just isn’t much room for soccer. Or maybe we Americans just want to be different than Europeans..haha, I honestly don’t know…


But another reason that I would guess be a reason that hooliganism occurs more in Europe is because countries’ teams often compete against each other at football matches. In the States, it is city vs city so the tension is less severe. In Europe it is country vs country…usually.…so my guess is that there may be some long historical tension that the countries’ have with one another….and it all comes out during the match. After all, many European countries have been at war with one another at some time in the past. Or maybe the football clubs themselves, which each team belongs to, have had some historical rivalries. Again, this is all from an outsiders’ perspective…as an American.


My opinion on it is…well, I think it would be scary as a live spectator to see such violent behavior erupt in a stadium I was at. Even if I was on the other side of the stadium witnessing it, I would still not be at ease.  On the other hand, I think there may be some good for fans to be so passionate about their team…and I am sure it helps form bonds between fans. So, I am not saying it is all bad…but…personally, for me…I wish they would just calm down. Even if your team loses…There is no reason to get violent and destructive. I am sure alcohol plays a pivotal role. So maybe one thing sporting venues can do to mitigate the risk of hooliganism is to be more strict with selling alcohol. Maybe they should cut some people off if they notice they are getting too drunk..


Oh yeah…and I should also say that hooliganism does not just occur at sporting events like soccer. Hooliganism can also refer to gang activities that can occur anywhere. Again, this word is used more in the UK I believe. In America, we would just say the word ‘gang’. Maybe a lot of teenage boys go through a hooligan phase in their life…where they are up to mischief and may engage in some petty crimes like vandalism or get into fights… I know I had such a phase. It was short, but I remember doing some naughty stuff as a teen. I think the hormones, specifically the spike in testosterone, and peer pressure are what leads to many young men engaging in hooliganism on the streets. So yeah, as far as bad behavior is concerned, hooliganism refers to a large spectrum of activity…from bad behavior and petty crimes to more serious crimes. I guess similar to the word gang in that way.


So yeah..I think I said all I know about it. I hope that helps!  Catch you next time and stay out of trouble everyone! 


Why We Forget Vocabulary (Ep. 35)


Today, we're talking about a very interesting topic, at least to me: Why do we forget new words that we are trying to learn? This happens to everyone, right? You are studying new vocabulary, and then a few hours later, you can’t remember the word anymore. Or if you are able to remember the word, or words, for sure within a few days or weeks, you’ll forget the word.


I believe there are three main reasons why this happens. 1) You have no use for the word. 2) The word has no emotional value for you, and 3) You haven’t had enough exposure, or repetitions of the word.


So let’s talk about all three reasons in part.


Number 1) You have no use for the word.

Imagine you learn a word like 'antidisestablishmentarianism'. Haha, that’s a big, complicated word, right? But when do you use it? If you don't see any reason to use this word, your brain thinks, 'Hmm, this isn't important.' So, you forget it. It's like when a child has a toy that he or she never plays with, they might forget they have it. In fact, many native speakers do know this word, and it isn’t because we have use of it…the reason why we know it is because it was considered the longest word in English and as kids we often asked each other, do you know the longest word in the English language? It’s”antidisestablishmentarianism”. 

But actually, I think there are other words that are longer that may be place names, medical terms, or chemical words…Also the famous “Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious”, which I would wager most native speakers know, was made famous from the song of the same name in the movie Mary Poppins.

Anyway, sorry for the tangent.


Number 2) The word has no emotional value for you.

I remember when I first learned the word “cheat” in Japanese. “Cheat” in a romantic relationship context…as in, “ I was cheated on”. I first learned this word when I was actually cheated on by a girlfriend. Before that, I had no use for the word, as it never applied to me….so this goes back to number 1…but I think what really made me remember this word was the emotional impact it had on me. I never had to look up this word again. I may have even come across this word before I was cheated on, but when it actually happened, I was very shocked and depressed…and so the word was attached to something emotional. Of course, vocab words do not have to be attached to only negative emotions. Positive emotions, or any emotion that vocabulary is tied to will, I believe, be easier to remember. So if you learn the word 'joy' while you're experiencing something really happy, like a birthday party or a fun day with friends, you're likely to remember that word better. This is because our brains connect words with the feelings we experience when we learn or use them. If you learn a new word when you feel good, excited, or even surprised, these emotions can help make the word stick in your memory. So, try to learn new vocabulary when you're feeling positive, or associate new words with positive experiences, and you might find them easier to remember!"


Number 3) 

You haven’t had enough exposure, or repetitions of the vocabulary.

Some words that you study simply won’t be useful to you in the near future. Likewise, some words will not have any emotional value. And it can be hard to attach emotional weight to every vocab word you study. For example, if you are learning the word “planet”, but you do not have any interest in space or astronomy, and no one around you is talking about “planets” or any related will be hard for you to remember this word. That doesn’t mean that this word won’t be useful to you in the future, however, when you inevitably hear this word by a native speaker in person or in a movie or TV show, it might be good to know. After all, I think most people’s dream is to achieve native-like mastery of the language they are studying. So the way to solve this problem is by repetition. Some people use flash cards or SRS systems. SRS stands for Spaced Repetition Systems, like the application Anki, for example. Some people prefer to write the words over and over in a notebook. But I think ultimately, in my opinion, the best way to increase your exposure is by a LOT of input. That could be reading or watching programs or movies…or listening to podcasts, like this one! :-D  It doesn’t really matter what form you consume content in..the main thing is to consume a lot and a wide variety of content. This will ensure that you will hear many words over and over again. And eventually, they will stick.


Anyways, I’ve talked a while now. I think that is plenty to shadow. Please like and subscribe if you haven’t. Thanks, as always, for listening. Catch you next time!




Dead Internet Theory (Ep 34).

Welcome to today's episode. We're diving into a curious idea called the Dead Internet Theory. This theory suggests that much of the internet is not made by people but by computers and bots. Imagine going online and finding out that most conversations, articles, and even social media posts aren't from humans at all. I actually first caught wind of this idea from a friend of mine on a hike, I think around a year ago or so. He didn’t use the name “dead internet theory,” I don’t believe, but he told me of this theory, which I thought was super interesting. Let's explore this idea.

The theory started on online forums and suggests that after 2016, real content from people started to decrease. Now, it's said that computers and AI tools create a lot of what we see online. This is because companies and people want to generate more traffic and engagement on their websites and/or social media platforms. They use AI to create posts, comments, and even entire conversations that seem like they're from real people. This makes the internet feel more active and popular than it might actually be. The idea is both fascinating and a bit scary. It makes us wonder how much of what we read and interact with online is genuine. Critics of this theory, however, argue that the internet is still a place full of real human creativity and connection. They point to the endless stream of new ideas, personal stories, and grassroots movements that continue to emerge online as evidence that the human spirit is still very much alive on the internet. Nonetheless, the Dead Internet Theory invites us to question the authenticity of our digital world and reminds us to look for the human touch behind the screen. If this theory is true, it makes us question what's real and what's fake online. It could mean that a lot of what we read and interact with might not be from real people. This is important because it affects how we see the world and each other.

In any case, I think it is self-evident that at least some percentage of the internet is bot or AI generated and some percentage is human generated. The more interesting question is how much of the internet is human-driven, and how much bot-driven. And now with ChatGPT and other AI platforms becoming popular, it seems that this trend will continue to go in the direction of more of the internet being “dead.” So perhaps one day, the internet will be 99% AI generated and 1% human generated.

This theory makes us think about the internet and our place in it. It asks us to consider what's real in a world where technology can mimic human behavior. And one knock-on effect that I think this AI trend may eventually have for people is it will make us crave genuine connections and real stories amidst all the digital noise, at least for some. I could also see a lot of people leaning into AI connections and valuing these connections more than real human ones. Well, the world is certainly getting crazier, I guess in every generation, though, right? Maybe that is a cliché statement.

Okay, I think that is good for now. I hope you found this interesting. Catch you next time.


Giving Directions (Ep. 33)

Hello everyone and welcome to another episode of Shadow English Podcast,

Today, we're embarking on a journey to master one of the most practical aspects of English—directions. And this episode’s idea is from a request, actually. A follower of mine on HelloTalk has asked me to make an episode about this topic. And it is certainly a good idea. Asking directions and understanding directions is vital when you are visiting a foreign country or when a foreigner is visiting your country and asking you. Whether the directions are for getting to the nearest subway station or whether you are guiding a friend to your favorite café, today's episode will equip you with the language you need. The thing is, there are a lot of vocabulary and phrases that can be said when giving directions, so one podcast will not be enough to cover all of the most likely scenarios.

But, let’s get started anyway, with a conversation that I think encompasses a lot of vocabulary and phrases that may be useful to you.

In this conversation, Alex is new to the city and is trying to find the way to the Central Library. Alex stops Jamie, a local, to ask for directions. The dialogue incorporates a range of vocabulary related to giving and understanding directions.

Alex: Excuse me, could you tell me how to find the Central Library?

Jamie: Of course! It's not too far from here. You're going to want to go straight ahead until you reach the second traffic light. Alex: So, I just go straight for now?

Jamie: Yes, go straight. When you get to the second traffic light, make a left turn. There's a roundabout there; you can't miss it.

Alex: Turn left at the roundabout, got it. What do I do after that?

Jamie: After you turn left, continue straight until you see a big park on your right. The library is just across from the park.

Alex: I see.

Jamie: You'll see a pedestrian crossing near the corner of the park. Use that to cross over, and you're there.

Alex: Alright, go straight, left at the roundabout, continue past the park, and it's right there. Does it take long to walk from here?

Jamie: Not at all. It's a short walk, about 5 minutes or so. You'll also pass by a small coffee shop on your left before you reach the park. If you hit a bridge, you've gone too far.

Alex: Great, I'll watch out for the coffee shop and make sure not to go as far as the bridge. So just to make sure I got it all, would you mind repeating the directions again?

Jamie: Sure! Go straight until the second traffic light, then make a left turn at the roundabout. Keep going straight until you see the park on your right. The library is across from the park, near a pedestrian crossing. Alex: Got it! Thanks so much for your help. It sounds straightforward.

Jamie: No problem at all. Enjoy your visit to the library!


Okay, so here are some good vocabulary words and phrases that I think will be good to focus on from the dialogue.

  • Could you tell me how to get to…?

  • Go straight ahead

  • Until you reach...

  • Traffic light

  • See something on your right or left.

  • Roundabout. Now, this type of intersection is more common in some countries than others. I’ve seen a few of them in Japan. Less so in America. And roundabouts abound in Europe. But basically, it is a round intersection where each car has to stop before they enter the circle and enter when no cars are coming, usually clockwise I think, or maybe it depends on the side you drive on, and then after you enter the circle, you exit whichever direction you want to go, left, right, or straight.

  • Pedestrian crossing. This is where people on feet can cross a street. Sometimes this can also be referred to as a street crossing or a zebra crossing, because it is typically a pattern of black and white stripes. You’ve gone too far

  • Make a left turn. Or make a right turn.

  • Would you mind repeating the directions again?

  • Until you hit a… This phrase means that when you reach a certain location…

  • It’s a short walk. Or it’s a bit of a walk.

Okay…so before we conclude, here are some strategies for when things get tricky. If you didn't catch the directions the first time, don't hesitate to ask someone to repeat them. Saying something like, 'Could you please say that again?' Or “Would you mind repeating the directions again?” is perfectly okay. And if you find yourself lost, remember, it's nothing a calm head and a polite question can't fix."


I think that is good for now. If you want me to make another episode on this topic or any other topic, please let me know in the Youtube comments or by email. Thanks so much. Catch you next time!

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